This section is willingly created for kids from 6 to 15 years old




           This section is willingly created for kids from 6 to 15 years old in order to help them 

understand much better the basic steps of Buddhism in English.

          The objective aim focuses mainly on Buddhist children who wish to learn something 

spiritually useful for their life.

           Some portions are withdrawn from the text book of “Sangha Talk” by Shenpen Zangpo 

and Francis Huang written for the beginner and intermediate level of studying Buddhism in Taipei. 

The other ones are created by Vietnamese monks and nuns and lay disciples.

          Thank you for all support and may the Buddha bless everyone.

          In Dharmas,

          Bhikkhuni TN Minh Tam
 
 




                         Sacred words

        If we just listen to the Dharma teaching but don’t practice, we’re like a ladle in 

        a pot of soup.

        Everyday the ladle is in the pot, but it doesn’t know the taste of the soup.  You 

        must contemplate and meditate.

        Venerable Ajahn Chah
 
 










                            Content:
 

                          · Brief history of Buddhism
 

                          · Life of the Buddha
 

                          · Buddhist tales
 

                          · Sacred words
 
 






                Brief History of Buddhism 

                  (from ‘What Buddhists Believe’ by K.Sri Dhammananda)

                                       Gautama, The Buddha

                                       The Founder of Buddhism

        Gautama Buddha, the founder of what came to be known as Buddhism, lived in Northern India in the 6th century B.C.   His personal name was Siddhattha, and family name Gautama.  The name ‘Buddha’ was given to Him after He attained Enlightenment and realized the Truth.  It means the ‘Awakened’ or the ‘Enlightened One.’ He generally called Himself the Tathagata, while His followers called Him Bhagava, the Blessed One.  Others spoke of Him as Gautama or Sakyamuni.
        He was born a prince who seemed to have everything.  He had a luxurious upbringing and His family was of pure descent on both sides.  He was the heir to the throne, extremely handsome, inspiring trust, stately and gifted with great beauty of complexion and fine presence.  At sixteen He married His cousin named Yasodhara who bore Him a son whom they called Rahula (attachment).  His wife was majestic, cheerful day and night, and full of dignity and grace.
        Despite all this, He felt trapped amidst the luxury like a bird in a golden cage.  During a visit to the city one day, He saw what is known as the ‘Four Sights,’ that is, an old man, a sick man, a dead man, and a holy recluse.  When He saw the sights, one after another, the realization came to Him that, ‘Life is subject to age and death.’  He asked, ‘Where is the realm of life in which there is neither age nor death?’  ‘The sight of the recluse, who was calm for having given up the craving for material life, gave Him the clue that the first step in His search for Truth was Renunciation.
        Determined to find the way out of these universal sufferings, He decided to leave home to find the cure not for Himself only, but for all mankind.  One night in His twenty-ninth year, He bade His sleeping wife and son a silent farewell, saddled His great white horse, and rode off toward the forest.
        His renunciation is unprecedented in history.  He left at the height of youth, from pleasures to difficulties; from certainty of material security to uncertainty; form a position of wealth and power to that of a wandering ascetic who took shelter in the cave and forest, with His ragged robe as the only protection against the blazing sun,  rain and winter winds. He renounced His position, wealth, promise of prestige and power, and a life filled with love and hope in exchange for the search for Truth which no one had found.
        For six long years, He labored to find the Truth.  He studied under the foremost masters of the day, and learned all these religious teachers could reach Him.  When He could not find what He was looking for, He joined a band of ascetics and tortured His body so as to break its power and crush its interference, since it was believed that Truth could be found this way.  A man of enormous energy and will power, He outdid other ascetics in every austerity they proposed.  While fasting, He ate so little that when He took hold of the skin of His stomach, He actually touched His spine.  He pushed Himself to the extend that no man had done and yet lived: He, too, would have certainly died had He not realized the futility of self mortification, and decided to practice moderation instead.
        On the full moon night of the month of Vesakha, He sat under the Bodhi tree at Gaya, wrapped in deep meditation.  It was then that His mind burst the bubble of the universe and realized the true nature of all life and all things.  At the age of 35, He was transformed from an earnest truth seeker into the Buddha, the Enlightened One.
        For nearly half a century, the Buddha walked on the dusty paths of India teaching the Dhamma so that those who heard and practiced could be ennobled and free.  He founded an order of monks and nuns, challenged the caste system, raised the status of women, taught religious freedom and free inquiry, opened the gates of deliverance to all, in every condition of life, high or low, saint or sinner, and ennobled the lives of criminals like Angulimala and courtesans like Ambapali.
        He was towered in wisdom and intellect.  Every problem was analyzed in component parts and then reassembled in logical order with the meaning made clear.  None could defeat Him in dialogue.  An unequalled teacher, He still is the foremost analyst of the mind and phenomena even up to the present day.  For the first time in history, He gave men the power to think for themselves, raised the worth of mankind, and showed that man can reach to the highest knowledge and supreme Enlightenment by his own efforts.
        Despite His peerless wisdom and royal lineage, He was never removed from the simple villagers.  Surface distinctions of class and castle meant to Him.  No one was too little or low for Him to help.  Often when an outcaste, or poor and dejected came to Him, his self-respect was restored and He turned from the ignoble life to that of a noble being.
        The Buddha was full of compassion (karuna) and wisdom (panna), knowing how and what to teach each individual for his own benefit according to his level and capabilities.  He was known to have walked long distances to help one single person.
        He was affectionate and devoted to His disciples, always inquiring after their well-being and progress.  When staying at the monastery, He paid daily visits to the sick wards.  His compassion for the sick can be seen from his advice: “He, who attends the sick, attends on me.” The Buddha kept order and discipline on the basis of mutual respect.  King Pasenadi could not understand how the Buddha maintained such order and discipline in the community of monks, when he as a king with the power to punish, could not maintain it as well in his court.
        Many miraculous powers were attributed to Him, but He did not consider these important.  To Him, the greatest was to explain the Truth and make a man realize it.  A teacher with deep compassion, He was moved by human suffering and determined to free from its fetters by a rational system of thought and way of life.
        The Buddha did not claim to have ‘created’ worldly conditions, universal phenomena, or the universal law which we call the ‘Dhamma.’   Although described as lokavidu or ‘knower of the worlds,’ He was not regarded as the sole custodian of that Universal law.  He freely acknowledged that the Dhamma, together with the working of the cosmos, is timeless; it has no creator and is independent in the absolute sense.  Every conditioned thing that exists in the cosmos is subject to the operation of Dhamma.  What the Buddha did (like all the other Buddhas before Him) was to rediscover this infallible Truth and make it known to mankind.  In discovering the Truth, He also found the means whereby one could ultimately free oneself from being subjected to the endless cycle of conditioning, with its attendant evils of unsatisfactoriness.
        After forty-five years of ministry, the Buddha passed away at the age of eighty at Kusanara, leaving behind thousands of followers, monks and nuns, and a vast treasure store of Dhamma Teaching.  The impact of His great love and dedication is still felt today.
        In the Three Greatest Men in History, H.G. Wells states:
        “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, lonely, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth.  He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.  Many of our best modern ideas are in closest harmony with it.  All the miseries and discontents of life are due, he taught, to selfishness.  Before a man can become serene he must cease to live for his senses or himself.  Then he merges into a greater being.  Buddhism in a different language called men to self-forgetfulness 500 years before Christ.  In some ways he was nearer to us and our needs.  He was more lucid upon our individual importance in service than Christ and less ambiguous upon the question of personal immortality.”
 



                               A Jataka Tale:
 

          The weather is fine.  The prince and his companion are out hunting.  He enters a forest. 
His friends, however, get stuck.  He sees a great deer and chases it.  The deer runs away.  The 
prince follows it.  Suddenly, the horse stops and the prince falls into a ravine.  He is hurt.  He is 
dirty.

          The deer sees this.  He is sad because the prince is in pain.  He is suffering.  The deer 
speaks to him, “I hope you are not in too much pain.  Trust me, I will help you.”

          The prince hearing the deer speak is surprised.  He is ashamed.  He asks the deer to help him.

          First the deer carries rocks on his back.  He is practicing to carry the prince.  Finally, he 
carries the prince to safety.  The prince is grateful. He says, “I’ll give you anything you want.”  The deer replies, “Please stop hunting.’  The prince agrees and begins to treat all animals with 
compassion.
 

        Questions to kids:

             1. Is the prince hunting alone?
             2. What is a ravine?
             3. Why does the deer carry rocks on his back?
             4. What does the deer ask the prince to do?
 
 








 

                     Like The Moon
 

                        A young monk

                                      Who diligently practices

                         Illumines the world

                                     Like the moon that

                         Breaks through the clouds.
 

             From The Dhammapada







 
 




               Sacred words

          Our defilements are like fertilizer for our practice.

          Chicken manure and buffalo dung is filthy stuff, but it’s fertilizer for trees.

          It makes the fruit sweet.

          In suffering, there is happiness.

          In confusion, there is calm.

        Ven. Ajahn Chah
 





 





            The Waves of Impermanence
 

         When we ride in a boat, we think that the shore is moving then we observe the 

boat, and know that it is the boat that is moving.

          Likewise, because we are confused, when we see things around us we believe 

that out mind and nature are permanent.

          When we practice and settle on the self, we realize that all things are 

impermanent and constantly changing.

        Zen Master Dogen



         How Does A Trapper Catch A Monkey?

           How does a trapper catch a monkey?  He takes a coconut and makes a small hole in it.  He then puts some peanuts inside and outside the coconut.
           Before long a monkey will come and eat the peanuts on the ground.  Then he’ll put his hand in the coconut to reach the peanuts inside.  Holding the peanuts makes his hands bigger, so he cannot now pull it out through the hole.  He cries and gets angry, but will not open his hand and let the peanuts go.  Finally, the trapper comes and catches him.
           We are like the monkey.  We want to be free from suffering but will not let go our desires.  In this way we remain caught in Samsara.

           A Buddha story

                 1. What does the trapper use to catch monkeys?
                 2. Why can’t the monkey pull his hand out of the coconut?
                 3. Why doesn’t the monkey let go of the peanuts?
                 4. How are we caught in samsara?
 





             Buddha sacred words

             Do not believe in anything simply because you have heard it.
             Do not believe in traditions because they have been handed down for many generations.
             Do not believe in anything because it is spoken or rumored by many.
             Do not believe in anything simply because it is found in religious books.
             Do not believe in anything only because it is taught by your teachers and elders.
             But after observations and analysis, when you find that everything agrees with reason 
             and is  for the benefit of all beings, then accept it and live accordingly.

                      The Buddha



        Good Deeds, Good Consequences 

            The master of the monastery could see into the future.  One day he saw that one little novice monk called Sakmi would die in seven days.  He told him to visit his parents for a week.
            Little Sakmi left the monastery.  On his way home, he saw water pouring into a hole.  In the hole were many ants struggling to escape.
           Sakmi felt compassion for them.  He put leaves around the hole and some ants climbed out, but the water continued to run in.  Sakmi then built a dam.  That stopped the water and saved the lives of the ants.
           Sakmi continued his journey home.  After seven days, he returned to the monastery.  When his master saw him, he was surprised.  He asked him to tell everything that happened during the seven days.
         Sakmi told him about his stay with his parents and about his journey to and from the monastery.  He also told him about the ants.
          The master then knew why Sakmi had not died.  It was because of his compassion for the ants.

                  An Agama Tale




 

                      Looking at the moon

              When talking about the moon, we sometimes say it looks happy, sometimes we say it look sad; sometimes we enjoy ourselves drinking sake  while looking at it.  Each moon that is seen by a human being corresponds to his karma and none of them are real.

               Kodo Sawaki Roshi

                   1. Does the moon appear the same to everyone?
                   2. Sawaki Roshi says that the moons seen by human beings are not real.  Why?
 
 



---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1.Japanese rice wine.
  2.Pali word: actions, deeds of anyone else: good or bad.
 
 



              Still The Forest Pool

                        Be mindful and let all things naturally occur.

              Your mind will then become quiet in any situation.

                       It will become like a clear forest pool and all kinds of wonderful 

               and rare animals will come to drink from it.

                       You will then clearly see the nature of all phenomena.

               You will see many wonderful and strange things coming and going.

                       But you will be still.

               This is the joy of the Buddha.
 

        Ajahn Chah
 
 

        Questions:
                   1. How can we make our mind quiet?
                   2. When our mind is quiet, what can we see?
                   3. When our mind sees “many wonderful and strange things coming and going,” 
                       do we become excited?
 



          Only Reflection of Mind
 

              Look outward at the appearing objects,

              And like the water in a mirage,

              They are more delusive than delusion,

              Unreal like dreams and illusions,

              They resemble a reflected moon and rainbows.
 

         Nyoshul Khenpo Rinpoche

        Questions:
          1. Can we drink the water in a mirage?
          2. Nyoshul Khenpo Rinpoche says that the things we see are like water in a mirage.  Why?
          3. What do dreams, illusions, reflections of the moon and rainbow have in common?
 



     If you can find any house where there is no one died
 

            Kisa Gotami’s son died.  She loved him dearly, so she could not accept his death.  Carrying the corpse, she went from house to house to find medicine.  Of course, nobody could help her.
           Finally, she went to the Buddha.  The Buddha said, “If you can bring me a mustard seed, I can help you.  The mustard seed, however, must come from a house in which no one in the family has ever died.”
           Kisa Gotami visited every house in the city.  Everywhere people took pity on her and offered mustard seeds.
           But when she asked, “Has anyone in your family ever died?,” the answer was always the same, “yes.”  Sometimes it was a parent or a brother or a sister that had died.  In other families, it was, like her, a child.
           She was very sad and returned to the Buddha empty-handed.  The Buddha asked her to reflect on what people had told her.  Slowly she realized that death was natural and that all things are impermanent.
           She felt comforted.  Later she returned to the Buddha and became one of his disciples.



         Seeing things as they really are

          Dogen Zenji taught that our attitude should be one of diligent practice in every situation that we encounter.  If we fall into hell, we just go through hell; this is the most important attitude to have.
           When we encounter unhappiness, we work through it with sincerity.  Just sit in the reality of life, seeing heaven and hell, misery and joy, life and death all with the same eye.  No matter what the situation, we live the life of the self.  We must sit immovably on that foundation.  This is “becoming one with the universe.”

        Kosho Uchiyama Roshi

       Questions:
         1. If we fall into hell, does Dogen Zenji suggest we try to escape?
         2. In life we will encounter many different kinds of situations.  How does Dogen Zenji suggest 
                 we see them?
         3. He suggests that we live the life of the self.  What does this mean?



                 Sacred words 
 

             Just sit in the reality of life,

                    Seeing heaven and hell, misery and joy,

                     Life and death all with the same eye.
 



               My belief

             I believe if we sincerely recite the name “Amitabha Buddha” then we will be reborn in the Pure 
Land.  So it depends completely on us to be reborn in this world that is much suffering and impermanent than the one in Pure Land or free from any attachment, desire, suffering, and rebirth from the cycle of samsara.

             We are the boss of our life.

             I definitely choose the Eternal Way to Freedom, how’s about you?
 





                  Relativity and Interdependence 
 

                           When there is beauty, there is ugliness.

                           Right cannot exist without wrong.

                          Wisdom and ignorance are dependent.

                          And illusion and enlightenment and inseparable pair.

                          This is not a new concept, but an ancient truth.

                          Wanting this and that is mere stupidity.

                          I’ll let you know a secret

                          All things are impermanent.
 

                Zen Master Ryokan
 



              "Turn Away from Suffering" 

      When I was just a boy in Nepal, a strange man in orange robes arrived in our village. He was a monk who spoke of the holy Buddha, a great man who had achieved enlightenment under a fig tree. 
 

     "Buddha said that suffering is the lot of men," he said, as everyone in the village began to cluster around him. "Men suffer as long as they cling to desires.  You suffer when you don't get something you want or when something you like is taken from you. You even suffer when you have to endure something you do not like."

     The crowd nodded in agreement. They certainly knew what suffering was. 

     "Turn away from suffering. Give up your attachments to the world," he urged us. He told us that his order wanted to start a monastery here in our mountains so that more people could learn about Buddha's Way. 

     A few days later several more monks appeared begging for their food. When we saw them, my friend BHARAT and I ran to his mother GANDHARI and asked her to cook some extra rice for them.

     "Tell the monks to cook their own food!" she retorted.

     "Please, mother," Bharat asked. 

     "All right. But just this time."

     We brought a bowl of rice to the men in orange robes. "What is it like to be a monk" I asked one of them. 

     "We live a simple life together," he said "Whatever food is given to us we share with each other. We spend our lives in prayers and meditation." 

     I was attracted to what he said. When the monks opened a school for boys, I asked my parents if I could go there. Shortly after that, my parents delivered me to the head monk DHARMA, and I joined the monastery as a novice. My head was shaved, and I put on their orange robes. 

     We boys studied the words of the Buddha and learned how to chant special prayers. When the time came, I chose to join them. I vowed to give up the world and put the welfare of others before my own. I was given the name ANANDA, one of the Buddha's close companions. 

     One day when I was begging, I came across my friend Bharat. "How are you?" he asked. 

     "I'm all right," I answered. "It's a different life, but I've gotten used to it."

     "We miss you," Bharat said. "My mother was just saying what a shame it was that you joined the monastery. She thinks all this worship is foolishness."

     "Have you ever thought of becoming a monk?" I asked.

     He thought for a moment. "Sometimes," he said.

     We spoke for a while. I told him about Buddha's teachings and how kind the other monks were. "You know, Bharat, sometimes you just have to break away from home and go your own way." 

     A few days later his mother appeared at our gates demanding to speak with the head monk.  Bharat reached the gates just behind her. 

     Dharma invited them into our main hall. "What exactly is the problem?" he asked Gandhari calmly. 

     "My son wants to leave me and join your monastery!" she yelled. "I am a widow. Who will take care of me in my old age?" 

     "Is this true?" he asked Bharat.

     "I am thinking about it. Ananda tells me how nice it is to be with you."

     "But how will you care for your mother?" Dharma asked. "She has no other way to support herself."

     Bharat looked ashamed. Dharma spoke to him kindly. "You know, our path is the Middle Way. You do not need to become a monk to practice it." 

     Then he turned to me. "And, Ananda, what's all this about your trying to influence Bharat? 

     "He's my friend,"  I answered. "Being a monk would be a better life for him."

     "That is for him to decide. You have taken vows." Dharma reminded me. "You must give up this desire for his friendship. You must put his mother's welfare before your own." 

     Now I looked down. I also felt ashamed. 

     "Beg the forgiveness of your friend and his mother. Then spend the rest of this day meditating on what has just happened." 

     I saw his point and did as he requested. 

     After a long life, I passed into that state between death and birth. I saw how my little self had kept me from reaching Enlightenment. I still had to take birth, but the wisdom of the monks would help me... 
 




           Never seek happiness outside yourself.

       Life is not about what happens to us; it’s about how we perceive what happens to us.

       Master your past in the present or the past will master your future.

       From Taro Gold in “Open Your Mind, Open Your Life”
 
 

       Never let life’s hardships disturb you.  After all, no one can avoid 

        problems,  not even saints or sages.

                          Nichiren
 
 








                     Chinese proverb

       If you want one year of prosperity, plant corn.  If you want ten years of prosperity, grow trees.  If you want one hundred years of prosperity, educate people.

       Our past and our future simultaneously exist in our present.

       Non-violence is the greatest virtue; cowardice the greatest vice – non-violence springs from love, cowardice from hate.

                         Mahatma Gandhi
 

       Truth has the power to dispel the darkness of ignorance – just as a candle has the power to light a cave that has been dark for a million years.

                        By Taro Gold
 

       Your actions are simultaneously the result of past karma and the creation of new karma.  Action creates memory and memory creates desire.  Desire produces further action, which continues the cycle of karma.  To be aware of this reality and to master your actions are the keys to creating the karma of happiness.

                      By Taro Gold
 
 

        The idea that life and death are separate is the reasoning of dreams, deluded and inverted.  If when wide awake we examine our true nature, we will find no beginning that requires our being born and no end that requires our dying.  What we will find is the essence of life, which cannot be burned by apocalyptic flames or worn away by flood or cut down by sword or pierced by arrow.  It is not too large to enter the seed of a flower without the seed expanding.  It is not too small to fill the entire universe without the universe contracting.

              Nichiren
 
 
 
 



                The Parable of the Impoverished Son
              From the Lotus Sutra Chapter 4, Belief and Understanding 

       Once a boy ran away from home and wandered for many years becoming more and more poor and confused.

       The boy’s father loved his son very much, but had no idea where to find him. As time went on, the father became very rich.

        Fifty years passed. One day, the son showed up at his father's estate. He did not know whose grand home this was, but wondered if he could find a job there. The father recognized his son, and set messengers to greet him. The father was overjoyed that his son had returned. 

        But the son misunderstood. He thought the messengers were trying to arrest him for doing something wrong.

       The father saw his son’s fear and confusion. He realized his son was not ready to accept the truth, so he told the messengers to leave his son alone.

        Later the father had some of his servants dress in rags. He had these servants go to his son and offer him a job shoveling excrement. The son had been living so poorly for so long, he saw this job as a wonderful opportunity. 

        Over the years, the father showed an interest in his son. He praised him, increasing his pay, and gave him better jobs. But he never told him his true identity. 

        After twenty years, the father was old and near death. By then the son was in charge of all of  the wealthy man’s business. The son had become a responsible but humble man. 

        Finally, just before his death, the father gathered all of his friends and all the powerful people of the city to his bedside. He told them all the true identity of his son. He said his son was heir to all his fortune.

==================================

       Questions:
      Why didn’t the father tell the son right away?
      Was not telling him the truth the same as lying to him?
      How does this story apply today?





                         Our Religion: Buddhism

        Buddhism is a religion – a very great religion.  People who follow this religion are called Buddhists.  We are Buddhist because we practice Buddhism.
        Buddhism is a very old religion, more than 2,500 years old, founded by the Buddha who lived in India in the sixth century B.C.  India is known as the birthplace of Buddhism because it was there that Buddhism arose and from there it spread to other parts of the world.  This country is very far from the United States – just on the opposite side of the globe.  It is the land of many great religions and strange beliefs.
        Buddhism is a religion of self-help.  It teaches man to depend on himself, to be courageous and confident in is own ability.  Buddhist philosophy places man at the center of all things; it advises man to strive and work hard to achieve his goals, material or spiritual, through his own efforts, not through prayer or mere wishful thinking.
        Buddhism is a religion of free thought.  It discourages blind faith and urges man to think freely.  It believes in man’s potentials and teaches that all men are capable of attaining the highest state of spiritual liberation.  Buddhism also teaches that all men are born equal and are free to choose whatever is best fro themselves.
        Buddhist teachings are logical and scientific.  Many Buddhist principles can be understood through logical reasoning, others can be realized through a proper process of experimentation.  The teaching of the Buddha, though very old, is still valid and practical and can be followed with advantage by all people of the world.
        Buddhism teaches man to be kind and gentle.  Buddhists are peace-loving people and have never made war in the name of the religion.  Today there is violence everywhere in our society because many people are selfish and lack kindness.  Unlike Buddhism, some other religions have a bloody history and their followers still believe that it is right to make war in the name of their religions.  The world is therefore never truly happy or peaceful, and mankind continues to suffer.
        Because Buddhism is a religion of self-help, it is suitable for the strong-minded.  Because it encourages free thinking, it enjoys a special place in the hearts of modern free thinkers.  Because its teachings are scientific, it is highly respected by the intellectual.  The Buddhist emphasis on peace and loving-kindness makes the religion appealing to peace-loving men the world over.



Two Virtues That Protect The World

        Men are social animals, so it is said.  When we live together in the form of society, we need a body of laws to keep peace and ensure justice for all members, without which it would be impossible for the society to function.  We can say, therefore, that all of us are under the protection of law.  But the Buddha speaks about a different kind of protection, a far superior one.  It is the moral protection that he so often stresses.
        There are two virtues, according to the Buddha, that provide us with the best protection – if we earnestly practice them.  They are:
       1. Hiri  -  Shame at doing evil (Moral Shame)
       2. Ottappa – Fear of the results of doing evil (Moral Dread)
        Hiri  is moral shame or conscience.  It arises out of an understanding of what is right or wrong, good or bad, and is developed through a constant application of moral vigilance.
       A person who practices Hiri does not do anything rashly or without proper forethought, but will always exercise precaution in all actions.  Before doing anything, he wisely asks himself, ‘Is it right or wrong?  Is it good or bad?’
       If he finds it to be wrong or bad, he will not do it, no matter what the temptation.  If, however, he realizes after an unprejudiced consideration that what he intends to do is right and good, he will make an effort to finish the task and will not give it up.
       Hiri can be compared to the aversive feeling a person who loves cleanliness may experience when he sees something loathsome or disgusting.  He may not, for instance, put his hand into a trash bag full of stinking garbage if he can avoid it.  When he comes across a puddle of mud and dirt, he would step aside to avoid getting himself and his clothes smudged.
       Likewise, an individual who practices Hiri disgusted with all bad actions, physical, verbal, and mental, and would endeavor to avoid them as far as possible.  He does not do such things as stamping his feet before his parents, talking impolitely back at them, or having an unkind and unrespectful thought toward them, for he knows that such bad and unbecoming of a good Buddhist and would make their parents very unhappy indeed.
       Ottappa is more dread or fear to do something wrong or immoral.  It is the result of a firm belief in the doctrine of karma which states that a willful action brings about an appropriate consequence, sooner or later.
       An individual who ahs Ottappa is afraid to do evil deeds because he knows that they will bring evil results and unhappiness to himself and others; he will not, on the contrary, hesitate to do the right things, firmly believing that the consequences thereof will be pleasant and beneficial.  Unfortunately, people tend to do just the opposite of what they should – they are brave to do evil, but afraid to do the good.
       Ottappa can be compared to fear of a poisonous snake.  Just as an individual avoids the snakebite, knowing that such is fatal, even so an Ottapa person tries to avoid evil because he knows that its consequences are painful.  He does not do wrong things even when he is sure that he will not be caught, for he understands that the law of Karma operates at all times and all places.  For this reason also he is encouraged to do good even if no one else notices it or acknowledges his good deeds.
       If people practice these two virtues, the world will, indeed, be well protected and there would be less need for law.  No evil deeds will be committed even in secrecy.  The world will thus be a very happy place for us all.